# Lesson Plan: Slope As Rate of Change

## Lesson Objectives

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

1. Understand the concept of slope as a rate of change.
2. Interpret slope in real-world situations involving rates of change.
3. Calculate and interpret rates of change from given data or graphs.
4. Solve problems involving rates of change.
5. Distinguish between rates and ratios.

## Common Core Standards

• 8.EE.B.5: Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph.
• 8.F.B.4: Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities.
• HSF-IF.B.6: Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function over a specified interval.

## Prerequisite Skills

• Understanding of slope as the ratio of the vertical change to the horizontal change.
• Familiarity with the slope formula: slope = (y2 - y1) / (x2 - x1).
• Ability to plot points on a coordinate plane and graph linear equations.
• Basic algebraic skills for solving equations.
• Understanding of ratios and proportions.

## Warm-Up Activity (5 minutes)

### Discussion of Rates and Ratios

Begin by asking students to define a ratio and provide examples. Explain that a ratio is a comparison of two quantities by division, often expressed as a fraction or a:b. Next, introduce the concept of a rate. Explain that a rate is a special type of ratio that compares two different types of quantities, such as distance and time, or cost and number of items.

Show these math clip art images to demonstrate the differences between ratios and rates: https://www.media4math.com/library/75393/asset-preview

Provide additional examples of rates, such as:

• Speed (distance traveled per unit of time)
• Fuel efficiency (distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed)
• Population growth rate (change in population per unit of time)
• Inflation rate (change in prices per unit of time)

Emphasize that rates involve different units for the numerator and denominator, while ratios often involve the same units. Display a graph showing the distance traveled by a car over time. Ask students to describe what the graph represents and what information they can gather from it. Guide them to understand that the slope of the graph represents the rate of change of distance with respect to time, which is the speed of the car.

## Teach (15 minutes)

### Introduction to Slope as Rate of Change

Show students this video about rates: https://www.media4math.com/library/1796/asset-preview

Explain that slope can be interpreted as the rate of change between two quantities. The rate of change is the ratio of the change in one quantity to the change in another quantity over a specific interval.

Explain that slope can be interpreted as the rate of change between two quantities. The rate of change is the ratio of the change in one quantity to the change in another quantity over a specific interval.Real-World Examples

Provide real-world examples of rates of change, such as:

• Speed (distance traveled per unit of time)
• Fuel efficiency (distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed)
• Population growth rate (change in population per unit of time)
• Inflation rate (change in prices per unit of time)

Demonstrate how to calculate and interpret rates of change from given data or graphs.

### Desmos Activity

Show students this Desmos activity about rates: https://www.media4math.com/library/75398/asset-preview

Explain what the graph represents:

• The slope of this line is the rate (cost per pound) of fruit.
• Changing the value of the slider m changes the rate.
• The slider varies from 0 to 5.
• The table shows the input values for x (the pounds of fruit) and the output values f(x), which represent the cost for that amount of fruit.

Have students explore this activity to answer the following questions:

1. What happens to the slope as the rate increases?
2. What happens to the cost of fruit as the slope increases?

### Problem-Solving

Guide students through solving problems involving rates of change. Encourage them to identify the quantities involved, determine the appropriate units, and interpret the meaning of the calculated rate of change in the context of the problem.

Use this collection of math clip art images to show examples of such rates: https://www.media4math.com/library/slideshow/slope-rate-change

## Review (5 minutes)

Summarize the key points of the lesson:

• Slope represents the rate of change between two quantities.
• The rate of change is calculated by dividing the change in one quantity by the change in another quantity over a specific interval.
• Rates of change can be interpreted in various real-world contexts, such as speed, fuel efficiency, population growth, and inflation.
• Rates involve different units for the numerator and denominator, while ratios often involve the same units.

Encourage students to ask questions and clarify any remaining doubts.

## Assess (10 minutes)

Administer a 10-question quiz to assess students' understanding of slope as a rate of change. The quiz should include a mix of conceptual questions, calculations, and real-world problem-solving scenarios.

1. What does the slope of a graph represent in terms of rate of change?
Answer: The slope of a graph represents the rate of change between the two quantities plotted on the x and y axes.
2. If a car travels 120 miles in 3 hours, what is its average speed (rate of change of distance with respect to time)?
Answer: Average speed = Distance / Time = 120 miles / 3 hours = 40 miles per hour.
3. The population of a city increased from 50,000 to 60,000 in 5 years. What is the annual population growth rate?
Answer: Annual population growth rate = (Change in population / Initial population) / Time = (10,000 / 50,000) / 5 years = 0.04 or 4% per year.
4. A company's revenue increased from $2 million to$3.5 million over a period of 2 years. What is the rate of change of revenue with respect to time?
Answer: Rate of change of revenue = (Change in revenue / Time) = ($3.5 million -$2 million) / 2 years = $0.75 million per year. 5. The graph below shows the distance traveled by a car over time. What is the car's average speed between t = 2 hours and t = 4 hours? (Provide a graph with appropriate data) Answer: Average speed = (Change in distance) / (Change in time) = (Distance at t = 4 hours - Distance at t = 2 hours) / (4 hours - 2 hours). 6. Interpret the rate of change in the following scenario: The cost of a product increases by$5 for every additional unit purchased.
Answer: The rate of change represents the change in cost per additional unit purchased, which is $5 per unit. 7. A company's profit increased from$100,000 to $150,000 over a period of 2 years. If the rate of change of profit remained constant, what would be the company's profit after 4 years? Answer: Rate of change of profit = ($150,000 - $100,000) / 2 years =$25,000 per year. Profit after 4 years = $100,000 + (4 ×$25,000) = \$200,000.
8. The graph below shows the temperature change over time. What is the rate of change of temperature between t = 2 hours and t = 5 hours?
(Provide a graph with appropriate data)
Answer: Rate of change of temperature = (Change in temperature) / (Change in time) = (Temperature at t = 5 hours - Temperature at t = 2 hours) / (5 hours - 2 hours).
9. Explain the difference between a positive rate of change and a negative rate of change in the context of population growth.
Answer: A positive rate of change indicates that the population is increasing over time, while a negative rate of change indicates that the population is decreasing over time.
10. A car travels 180 miles in 3 hours. If the car maintains the same rate of change, how far will it travel in 6 hours?
Answer: Rate of change (speed) = Distance / Time = 180 miles / 3 hours = 60 miles per hour. Distance traveled in 6 hours = Rate of change × Time = 60 miles per hour × 6 hours = 360 miles.